By: Nikki Fedorko
I was fortunate enough to participate in an exciting, yet intimidating, experience from inside a police car. On November 17, I was assigned to accompany Sergeant Todd Phillips of the Lexington Division of Police on a ride-along. Sergeant Phillips has been with the Lexington Police Department (LPD) for 12 years and has been a Sergeant for the past three years.
In 2006, Sergeant Phillips and the LPD took initiative in combating gang-related criminal issues and increasing response to community needs with the creation of the Community Law Enforcement Action Response (CLEAR) Program. There are three squads within the CLEAR unit which concentrate officers’ efforts in the most high crime neighborhoods by providing both a permanent day and night time presence. The CLEAR unit is composed of 24 individuals, five of which are handpicked specialists called Gang Resource Officers (GROs).
Gang members and the violence they perpetuate have haunted the American consciousness for the past generation. Society has been led to believe that gangs are large, menacing, well organized and affiliated with national gangs. Media has portrayed gang leaders are ruthless and charismatic murders.
While Lexington does have organized gangs committing criminal offenses, a large majority of the gangs here are small, loosely organized, violent groups of young men. Sergeant Phillips said that gangs typically recruit children ages 10-12 to hold their drugs and guns. Children and adolescents join gangs for many reasons: self defense, access to drugs, a sense of belonging, an opportunity to make some cash or a lack of education.
Sergeant Phillips believes that our community must embrace a comprehensive approach when fighting gang violence and criminal activity. The first two tiers of the “system” (law enforcement and prosecution) are working like a well oiled machine….it is the other tiers of our multi-faceted justice system that are not adequately addressing the evolving nature of gang activity.
*Thanks to Sergeant Phillips, Officer Thurman, Officer Kennedy and Officer Stafford for the BEST and most importantly, educational ride-along!
Anika Gooch, our social work intern from the University of Louisville, has been accepted into 2 honor societies due to her fantastic academic performance! On April 8th 2014, Anika was formally inducted into the Phi Alpha Honor Society for Social Work. Later in the year, on November 3rd, 2014, she was also inducted into the Golden Key International Honor Society. Congratulations Anika!
By Anika Gooch
Peyton Manning breaking Brett Farve’s touchdown pass record and Aaron Rodgers delivering a monster game with 6 six touchdown passes haven’t been the only thing that has put the NFL in the limelight recently. The latest surge of domestic violence incidences involving Baltimore Raven’s running back Ray Rice and explosive Minnesota Viking’s running back Adrian Peterson have called into question the NFL’s stance on domestic violence.
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The Sixth Amendment of the Constitution confers certain rights to individuals relating to criminal prosecution. As one facet of the Sixth Amendment, the Speedy Trial Clause guarantees that in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy trial. The initial discrepancy is determining what a speedy trial entails and how it is this right is violated during criminal prosecution. Two cases have shaped the development of the Speedy Trial Clause.
The first Case, and the most salient of the two, is Barker v. Wingo (1972), which set for a test for determining whether or not a violation of the right to a Speedy Trial has occured. The rules are as follows:
These four factors have significantly shaped the determination of a violation of a Speedy Trial. As a case study, the second Case that has shaped the Speedy Trial Clause is in Doggett v. United States (1992). Over the course of eight and a half years, Doggett was charged with the distribution of illicit drugs (cocaine), but he was coincidentally not arrested due to travel — national and international — and because, as the Court determined, negligence on part of the government. Moreover, he was accidentally discovered to have returned to the United States and subsequently indicted. He appealed on the grounds that his right to a speedy trial was violated, and the Supreme Court agreed. They believed that the Case violated the first and four factors of the test developed in Barker.
All of this information is important because the effect of a violation of this right means a dismissal of both the charge and/or an unfair conviction. Always keep your rights in mind, and do not be hesitant to hold your government accountable for what they are sworn to protect!
Until next time,
My name is Ryan McElhose, college sports reporter for www.lexingtonprosecutor.com. I am the beat writer for the UK Women’s Soccer Team. When I’m not carrying my textbooks or wearing a tie for my internship here at the Office of the Fayette Commonwealth’s Attorney, I manage the UK Women’s Soccer team.
Kentucky has a spectacular team this year. We are now in the SEC tournament in Orange Beach, Alabama, and our team is “fired up.” Four members of our team have received recognition by the SEC for their outstanding play this season.
ARIN GILLILAND, is a Kentucky-native and a highly respected player nationally. Arin was awarded “First-Team All SEC” honors as well as being named the “2014 SEC Defensive Player of the Year.” In addition Arin received the first-ever, prestigious HONDA INSPIRATION AWARD.
TAYLOR BRAUN, goalie. Taylor was named to the “SEC All-Freshman Team” after setting a program record of 462 minutes without allowing a goal.
CORTNEY RAETZMAN, overcame a season-ending knee injury last year to come back and earn “Second-Team All SEC” honors this season.
JADE KLEMP, a sophomore, was named to the “Second-Team ALL SEC.” Jade is currently the leading scorer for the women’s team. She has scored eight goals so far this season
All of our Wildcat Women’s Soccer Team members make us proud as they begin their quest for the SEC tourney title. I am honored to be associated with ALL of these superior athletes and people. On November 5th, the Wildcats will take on the Auburn Tigers in a quarter-final match. Tune in to the SEC Network at 3:30 p.m on November 5th. GO CATS!
By: Taylor Brown
On October 20 and 21, I had the privilege of working along Assistant Commonwealth’s Attorney Dan Laren as he tried an assault case in Fayette Circuit Court. Looking back on those two days in Judge Ishmael’s courtroom, I believe that the experience I gathered working alongside Mr. Laren will be just as valuable to my legal career as anything I have learned in my years of reading cases in law school.
One of the first things Mr. Larson told me when I started this externship was that he would have me up and speaking in court soon after I began. Mr. Laren reiterated this point the first time I met with him. October 20 showed how serious both men were about this.
Part of the Commonwealth’s case in the trial focused on the damages sustained by the victim. In order to present this evidence to the jury, the EMT who first responded to the scene was called to testify. It was my job to conduct the direct examination of the EMT.
While my Litigation Skills class at UK had somewhat prepared me for this moment, nothing could compare to the actual experience of conducting a direct examination in a trial that had real stakes. It’s one thing to conduct a direct examination on a fellow student in front of a professor and a handful of classmates; it’s quite another to actually do it in front of a real courtroom.
The experience of actually helping to try a case didn’t just end there. Mr. Laren treated me as though I was his equal throughout the trial. I was not a clerk; there to run errands for the senior attorney, rather, I was entrusted with key details of every aspect of the trial. From preparing for the trial by reviewing Grand Jury testimony, to interviewing witnesses, to helping with jury selection; throughout it all, I was involved. During the actual trial, not only did I conduct the direct examination mentioned above, I also was called on to give insight at every turn. From analyzing defense objections at the bench to crafting and refining the Commonwealth’s strategy as the trial progressed, I was treated as an equal partner the entire time.
While the hands-on experience was possibly the greatest learning experience I have had in law school, I also got to learn a great deal from simply observing Mr. Laren, his counterpart for the Defense, and Judge Ishmael – not to mention the jury. It’s one thing to read about something like a hearsay objection in your Evidence casebook, it’s quite another to see how parties respond when hearsay is brought into the record.
Overall, through this experience, and the other numerous active roles I have been given in the Commonwealth’s Attorney’s office, I have learned a lot of “the stuff they don’t teach you in law school.” You can learn a lot about a car by reading the owner’s manual, but you can’t learn to drive it until you actually are sitting in the driver’s seat with your hand on the wheel and the key in the ignition. Law school, thus far, has provided me the manual for the practice of law; the prosecutorial externship has me sitting behind the wheel.
By: Anika Gooch
On October 15th, 2014, I had the opportunity to attend a domestic violence training in Lexington, Kentucky. The main speaker was the 2012 Family Justice Center Alliance Lifetime Achievement Award winner Mark Wynn.
As a 21-year member of the Nashville Metropolitan Police Department and Lieutenant to the Domestic Violence Division, Mark was able to provide valuable insight in regards to the fight against domestic violence.
Domestic violence is a heinous crime that knows no boundaries. Throughout the past decades, it has claimed the lives of countless women, children and police officers. Although, I was well aware of the dangers of being a police officer, I had never thought about the possible harm to those who work directly with domestic violence. Responding to domestic violence calls as well as serving protective orders is one of the most dangerous duties of a police officer.
Using the power and control wheel of domestic violence, Mark was able to explain how perpetrators view victims as their personal property. When police officers threaten the “personal property” of offenders, their lives can often become endangered. Police officers and victims of domestic violence are much more similar then I had once thought.
Perpetrators use the power and control wheel to assert dominance over their victims as well as the police officers involved in the case. Seeing a tool used for assessing reasons why victims stay in violent relationships being used in relation to police was very mind opening.
As a future social worker, it was very beneficial to see the fight against domestic violence from a police officer’s perspective. Since police are the first responders, understanding their point of view can prove very helpful for social workers that become involved with the case. The collaboration between the organizations and agencies that work to combat domestic violence is essential in order for the battle to be successful.
I am very grateful to have had the opportunity to listen to someone speak who has dedicated their entire life and career to combating domestic violence. I believe that is very important that these types of trainings continued to be offered to agencies that work so closely with this issue.
By: Nikki Fedorko
The legalization of Marijuana is gaining momentum in the United States and raising many new concerns. Although it is well established that alcohol consumption increases one’s risk for a car crash, toxicology tests are revealing that many impaired drivers are under the influence of marijuana. These lab reports emphasize the fact that drugged driving renders a person less able to perform complex tasks, such as operating a car. Thus, marijuana can play a significant role in fatal car crashes too.
Delta-9 THC, an active ingredient in marijuana, tends to have a combining effect of a depressant, a mild hallucinogenic, and a psychotropic medicine. This means marijuana can negatively affect one’s cognitive processes. Some of these processes include distorted perceptions, impaired coordination, and difficulty thinking and problem solving. Furthermore, all of these cognitive processes are necessary during the course of driving a vehicle. So if the brain is impaired due to marijuana use, it is probable that the driver will have poor coordination, lack focus, weave in and out and react to situations slowly.
Sargent Ron Keaton graciously allowed me to tour the Fayette County police evidence impound lot. The “evidence impound lot” is essentially a lot that showcases roughly 20 automobiles involved in fatal car crashes and/or drug deals. About 90% of the cars have extreme cosmetic damage and were labeled “totaled”. Sgt. Keaton said that almost all of the drivers of the vehicles were driving under the influence of marijuana. At first I found that hard to believe because of what I’ve been told in the past. I’ve heard many people claim that they can drive better while high in comparison to while drunk. The various media outlets, Public Service Announcements, and educational programs instill in us the dangers of driving drunk. But, when will the media expose the numerous risks of drugged driving? We need to create a culture where, like drunk driving, drugged driving is not acceptable either.
The Constitution states that all trials, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by Jury (Art 3. Sec 2. Cl. 3). One mistaken impression made by the public is that trials proceed in this manner, but this is not true. Indeed, criminal cases rarely go to trial for practical reasons: it is expensive, time-consuming, and the number of criminal cases is overwhelming. In fact, more than ninety percent of criminal cases are resolved by what is called a ‘plea bargain,’ whereby a prosecutor offers a reduced prison sentence in exchange for a guilty plea by the defendant who, in turn, waives their right to a trial by jury.
As an aspect of criminology, plea bargaining may or may not play an important role in deterring criminals. If plea bargaining reduces sentences that would otherwise convict real criminals, then one can intuit that criminals are less likely to believe that there is more at stake for them by committing a crime. On the other hand, plea bargaining can be construed as a deterrence because there is a limit to when a prosecutor is willing to negotiate a sentence — especially for repeat offenders, such that some criminals might think twice about committing another crime because they were shown ‘legal mercy’ in the first place.
Ultimately, the current nature of the justice system as aggregate and practical must be considered in light of the absolute principles that are also a part of the justice system: procedural fairness, substantive fairness, and a welcomed political or social benefit.